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India and PakistanContinued Conflict or Cooperation?$
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Stanley Wolpert

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780520266773

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520266773.001.0001

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Recent Attempts to Resolve the Escalating Conflict

Recent Attempts to Resolve the Escalating Conflict

(p.71) Eight Recent Attempts to Resolve the Escalating Conflict
India and Pakistan

Stanley Wolpert

University of California Press

Prolonged secret efforts by India and Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons reached their dramatic fruition in May 1998, when both camps exploded powerful nuclear bombs. World leaders from Britain, Russia, China, and the United States, tried their best to persuade both Prime Ministers Atul Bihari Vajpayee and Nawaz Sharif to reach peaceful agreements on all outstanding Indo-Pakistani conflicts as swiftly as possible. In February 1999, Vajpayee met with Sharif in Lahore in the so-called “Spring Summit of Friendship.” They were greeted with black flags by thousands of angry militant Pakistanis. General Pervez Musharraf, Pakistan's chief of army staff, ordered Pakistani troops to occupy icy Indian-built bunkers on the Line of Control in Kargil without informing Sharif. In his memoir, Musharaff asks, “How did we reach the present-day epidemic of terrorism and extremism?”. He blamed the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and its aftermath, which triggered the influx of so many Pathan refugees into Pakistan camps. Benazir Bhutto, however, blamed Musharraf himself and his military aides.

Keywords:   Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Atul Bihari Vajpayee, Nawaz Sharif, conflicts, Pervez Musharraf, Kargil, terrorism, extremism

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