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An Unfinished RepublicLeading by Word and Deed in Modern China$
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David Strand

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780520267367

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520267367.001.0001

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Seeing Like a Citizen

Seeing Like a Citizen

(p.146) Chapter 4 Seeing Like a Citizen
An Unfinished Republic

David Strand

University of California Press

Political contention produced many competing images of China. The co-habitation of dynasty and republic in the winter of 1911–12, followed by twin Presidents Sun and Yuan in the spring, set a pattern for multiple sovereignties and rival royalties that continued for decades during times of civil war and revolution. As for the entire panorama of what Chinese leaders and their fellow citizens saw in the 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s, one can list emblematic events such as warlord conflict, civil war and other forms of political violence, protests and demonstrations, and periodic efforts to rebuild localities, institutions, and the country. Some identities and agendas mattered as well although patriotism was the most common way to frame such political perceptions and reactions. Political consent was no longer to be measured passively by the absence or rebellion. In addition, Yuan's political failure continued to bring about public and popular pressure to solve China's crises.

Keywords:   dynasty, sovereignties, warlord, demonstrations, violence

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