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Beyond CladisticsThe Branching of a Paradigm$
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David M. Williams and Sandra Knapp

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780520267725

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520267725.001.0001

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Monophyly and the Two Hierarchies

Monophyly and the Two Hierarchies

Chapter:
(p.146) (p.147) NineMonophyly and the Two Hierarchies
Source:
Beyond Cladistics
Author(s):

Olivier Rieppel

Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:10.1525/california/9780520267725.003.0009

The school of biological systematics known as cladistics is notorious for drawing a distinction between pattern and process. The pattern is one of relative degrees of relationships, the process is one of species lineages splitting and splitting again. Phylogenetic relationships are expressed as a phylogenetic tree, which is a system of species lineages splitting and splitting again. The result is a “division hierarchy” that does not specify relations of inclusiveness. In 1992, P. A. Williams “suggested that some major problems found in cladism stem from a confusion inherent in its philosophy.” Specifically, she claims to have demonstrated that the divisional “hierarchy” and the Linnaean hierarchy are different types of “hierarchy.” This chapter focuses on monophyly and the two hierarchies. It looks at the use of DNA barcodes for species identification and discovery and as a potential tool to let reciprocal illumination guide the process of species identification and discovery.

Keywords:   DNA barcodes, monophyly, cladistics, phylogenetic relationships, division hierarchy, P. A. Williams, Linnaean hierarchy, reciprocal illumination, species identification

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