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Environmental FlowsSaving Rivers in the Third Millennium$
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Angela H. Arthington

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780520273696

Published to California Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520273696.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 16 September 2021

Wetlands, Threats, and Water Requirements

Wetlands, Threats, and Water Requirements

(p.243) 17 Wetlands, Threats, and Water Requirements
Environmental Flows

Angela H. Arthington

University of California Press

Many different wetland types have been recognised, their character depending upon climatic and hydrogeomorphic setting, inundation regime, groundwater, water chemistry, and associated factors. Wetlands include riverine, lacustrine, palustrine, and estuarine systems. Freshwater wetland ecosystems are listed among the most impacted and degraded of all ecological systems. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance aims to halt the worldwide loss of wetlands and to conserve those that remain. A conceptual framework has been proposed to maintain their ecological character. Methods include estimation of a water budget, or estimation of the river and floodplain flows required to inundate wetlands associated with river channels, the floodplain, or terminal water bodies. Ecological methods address the water requirements of wetland vegetation and other biota, especially waterbirds.

Keywords:   wetlands, riverine, lacustrine, palustrine, estuarine, Ramsar Convention, ecological character, water budget, wetland vegetation, waterbirds

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