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Environmental FlowsSaving Rivers in the Third Millennium$
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Angela H. Arthington

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780520273696

Published to California Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520273696.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2019. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 15 October 2019

Estuaries, Threats, And Flow Requirements

Estuaries, Threats, And Flow Requirements

Chapter:
(p.259) 18 Estuaries, Threats, And Flow Requirements
Source:
Environmental Flows
Author(s):

Angela H. Arthington

Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:10.1525/california/9780520273696.003.0018

Estuaries can be classed as embayments and drowned river valleys, wave-dominated estuaries, wave-dominated deltas, coastal lakes and lagoons and strandplain-associated creeks, tide-dominated estuaries, tide-dominated deltas, and tidal creeks. They form the lower end of the river continuum and their ecological character is deeply dependent upon the incoming freshwater flow regime. This chapter reviews the impacts of land-use changes, urbanization, and water engineering in river corridors, large water-supply dams, flow diversion, water extraction from rivers, and groundwater pumping on freshwater inflow regimes and water quality. Environmental flow methods for estuaries can be divided into three types based on achieving: inflows (e.g., a percentage relative to natural inflows), a specified estuarine condition, or the needs of particular estuarine resources.

Keywords:   estuaries, freshwater inflow regimes, water quality, ecological character, environmental flow methods, estuarine condition

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