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The Ethnographic StateFrance and the Invention of Moroccan Islam$
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Edmund III Burke

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780520273818

Published to California Scholarship Online: January 2015

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520273818.001.0001

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Social Research in the Technocolony, 1912–1925

Social Research in the Technocolony, 1912–1925

(p.105) Six Social Research in the Technocolony, 1912–1925
The Ethnographic State

Edmund Burke

University of California Press

With the establishment of the French protectorate in 1912 under Resident-General Hubert Lyautey, a phase of institutionalization began. Moroccan Islam was recast as the handmaiden of native policy planning. The Mission scientifique was rebaptized the Mission sociologique du Maroc and placed under the native affairs department. Additional periodicals were launched, among them Archives Berbères and Hesperis, as well as an important publication series, Villes et tribus du Maroc. In this phase, the previously neglected Berber regions where resistance persisted were given priority. Ethnography was put directly into the service of the colonial project, becoming directly involved in the conquest and policy planning. However, in an ironic twist, the protectorate government was based not upon the complex and historically grounded understandings of Moroccan society but upon the social binaries of French colonial Algeria that Lyautey claimed to have rejected. So successful was the French marketing of the idea of the protectorate, however, that few observers (French or Moroccan) were willing to criticize the gap between expressed ideals and actual practices.

Keywords:   A.I.O.C, scientific native policy, General Lyautey, Alfred Le Chatelier, Villes et tribus du Maroc, Archives Berbères

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