Chapter 2 (“Double Standards”) recounts how the racial presuppositions of British railway engineers about “indolent time-mindless Orientals” percolated into scheduling and management schemes between 1850 and 1870. The result was a double standard of punctuality: a lax colonial punctuality and a stricter metropolitan one. Egyptian passengers protested against this double standard, but gradually many of them came to adopt it themselves and even to celebrate it. This process entailed developing a pointed critique of the alienating effect of European efficiency contrasted with Egyptian or Islamic time.
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