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City of Demons$
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Dayna S. Kalleres

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780520276475

Published to California Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520276475.001.0001

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Jerusalem to Aelia, Aelia to Jerusalem

Jerusalem to Aelia, Aelia to Jerusalem

Monumental Transformations

Chapter:
(p.115) 4 Jerusalem to Aelia, Aelia to Jerusalem
Source:
City of Demons
Author(s):

Dayna S. Kalleres

Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:10.1525/california/9780520276475.003.0004

I describe a revolving dynamic of monumental destruction and construction, which existed in Jerusalem prior to the Jewish Temple’s destruction in 70 CE. I argue that the continual exchange of demolition and building ascribed an animated sense to monumental remains and invested cosmological and soteriological significance and animistic relevance to construction. In the tensions between local and imperial powers from the first through the fourth centuries, opposed enchanted environments emerged to support notions of spiritual warfare, potentially driven to violence by the urgency of an overriding apocalyptic, eschatological framework. I focus closely on intertwining the material and literary aspects of the Hadrianic period and the Constantinian building project. I argue that in addition to understanding the tradition of imperial building in Jerusalem, we must also grasp a vibrant ritual tradition of resistance shaped by apocalyptic and eschatological literary forms. To make my point, I intersperse readings of the physical city with Ezra 4 and Baruch 2. We can see these texts echo again in the fourth century in the Bordeaux Pilgrim and fourth-century Christians in Jerusalem.

Keywords:   Bordeaux Pilgrim, apocalypticism, eschatology, Jerusalem, Hadrian, Constantine, Holy Sepulcher, Jewish Temple

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