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The Biology and Ecology of Giant Kelp Forests$
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David R. Schiel and Michael S. Foster

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780520278868

Published to California Scholarship Online: January 2016

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520278868.001.0001

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Human Usage of Giant Kelp and Kelp Forest Organisms

Human Usage of Giant Kelp and Kelp Forest Organisms

(p.235) 11 Human Usage of Giant Kelp and Kelp Forest Organisms
The Biology and Ecology of Giant Kelp Forests

David R. Schiel

Michael S. Foster

University of California Press

This chapter discusses the anthropogenic effects on water quality and benthic habitats that negatively affect giant kelp growth and reproduction. These include activities that increase sedimentation, reduce light, and increase turbidity and temperature, causing the decline of Macrocystis. The most important effects of sewer effluent are on microscopic stages and small juvenile sporophytes whose survival and reproduction is inhibited by light reduction, scour, and burial as well as by toxic materials sorbed to particulate organic matter. Excess nutrients that reduce benthic light by stimulating phytoplankton growth may also encourage the growth of algal turfs that directly and indirectly inhibit recruitment of kelp and various large fucoids. Turf-sediment matrices have also been implicated in preventing recolonization of native algal species in Tasmania kelp communities. Ammonia can be toxic, and domestic sewage can contain toxic metals and organic compounds that may be increased if the discharge also contains industrial wastes.

Keywords:   anthropogenic effects, water quality, benthic habitats, giant kelp communities, Macrocystis, sewer effluent, algal turfs, turf-sediment matrices, ammonia

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