A Miocene/Pliocene split is suggested for some species of reptilians in California, and a Pliocene/Pleistocene split for other species. Coalescent and noncoalescent measures reveal deep genetic divisions in the Charina bottae complex, Contia tenuis (sharp-tailed snake), Diadophis punctatus, Elgaria multicarinata, and Lampropeltis zonata that correspond with vicariant events; however, each species shows different responses in terms of dispersal. Important events in Squamata divergence in California include the formation of the Transverse Ranges, Central Valley–Pacific connection at Monterey Bay (late Pliocene/mid-Pleistocene), San Francisco Bay Delta (mid-Pleistocene), southern Sierra Nevada glaciations (Pleistocene), and the Bouse Embayment. All species studied indicate a long-term stability in the southern range, which also has the highest level of endemism. The Pleistocene development of the Colorado River provided a significant barrier to gene flow demonstrated in Gopherus agassizii, Phrynosoma mcallii, and Uma scoparia, but not in Dipsosaurus dorsalis (desert iguana) and Sauromalus ater (chuckwalla); regardless, the latter two species retained higher diversity in the southeastern extent of the range.
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