Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Phylogeography of California$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Kristina A. Schierenbeck

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780520278875

Published to California Scholarship Online: January 2015

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520278875.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 17 May 2022



(p.159) 11 Birds
Phylogeography of California

Kristina A. Schierenbeck

University of California Press

The avifauna of California emerged as the result of colonization from a number of different biogeographic areas and increased in diversity during the Paleogene. Upwelling during the Miocene was likely important in the radiation of the Alcidae and other shorebirds. Pleistocene glaciations and climatic changes had effects on the phylogeographic pattern in many species, including Aves. Worldwide, it is estimated that there were twenty-one thousand bird species at the beginning of the Pleistocene, but by the end of the Pleistocene, only ten thousand species remained. Boreal birds with large distributions in glaciated North America diverged in the Pleistocene due to divergent selection in different ecological habitats, many of which show evidence of refuge in Northern California. However, birds with large ranges in sub-boreal or tropical environments diverged prior to the Pleistocene. It is unclear if Pleistocene glaciation cycles resulted in speciation rates higher than background rates. Species that show evidence of retreat to southern refugia during glaciation events include Agelaius phoeniceus and others. Refugial populations of Chamaea fasciata and others were present in the Transverse Ranges region. Habitat and climatic differences correspond to divergence of Pica nuttalli and P. hudsonia, among other species, between California and central Mexico. Migratory species generally have more uniform genetic distributions than nonmigratory species, but their genetic structure is affected by breeding range.

Keywords:   Passiformes, Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Galliformes, Strigiformes, Falconiformes

California Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.