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Boats, Borders, and BasesRace, the Cold War, and the Rise of Migration Detention in the United States$
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Jenna M. Loyd and Alison Mountz

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780520287969

Published to California Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520287969.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 28 June 2022

Onshore Expansion

Onshore Expansion

Consolidating Deterrence through Criminalization and Expulsion

(p.175) 6 Onshore Expansion
Boats, Borders, and Bases

Jenna M. Loyd

Alison Mountz

University of California Press

Chapter 6 explores how political crises over migration and crime dovetailed with each other to cement detention into the landscape materially and discursively. Criminal legislation passed from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s repeated the pattern established earlier in Boats, Borders, and Bases: asylum seekers are detained, followed by executive orders and congressional legislation authorizing these practices. Like previous efforts to deter asylum seekers and other unauthorized migrants, criminalization established far-reaching legal and institutional bases for expanding enforcement and detention. As with earlier treatment of “undesirable” Cubans and “bogus” Haitian asylum seekers, the figure of the criminal alien was consolidated through its juxtaposition with notions of legal, good, and contributing refugees and immigrants. As migration and criminal justice policy became more closely entwined, the basis for expanding detention shifted more explicitly from deterrence to a more robust tool of punishment and expulsion.

Keywords:   criminalization, asylum politics, racialization, detention expansion, expulsion, transportation, privatization politics

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