Back to the Future
This concluding chapter maps changes to detention and border enforcement policy immediately before and after September 11, 2001. It counters much contemporary scholarship that places 9/11 as a significant turning point in the securitization and criminalization of migrants and asylum seekers. While not denying the seismic securitization that followed the attacks, this chapter places these changes in historical context to show that the continued cycle of racialized and geopoliticized exclusions that had already been well rehearsed in U.S. border enforcement and immigration law and detention and deterrence policies and practices.
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