Cultivating Citizenship Education
As with religion, schooling constituted a medium through which to establish a framework of ultimate loyalties and authority, as it defined the norms of the relationship between the state and the people—that is, what it means to be a citizen. Chapter 6 thus examines the push for crafting public education as part the strengthening of the state’s normative authority. In addition to tracking the institutional rationalities of state control over education, which resulted in a tremendous expansion of public schools, this chapter focuses on the development of concepts such as “nation” and “citizen” as they were appropriated for the “ethics” curriculum. As seen in textbooks from the 1890s to the 1940s, loyalty to the state and adherence to Confucian social ethics came to constitute the core principles of citizenship education.
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