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Mock ClassicismLatin American Film Comedy, 1930-1960$

Nilo Couret

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780520296848

Published to California Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520296848.001.0001

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(p.273) Index

(p.273) Index

Source:
Mock Classicism
Publisher:
University of California Press

Note: Page numbers followed by f indicate a figure.

¡A volar joven! (Delgado), 50–52, 53f, 204
Agamben, Giorgio, 148, 249n78, 250n98
Ahí está el detalle (Bustillo Oro), 19, 25–34, 37, 51, 57, 159, 204
alemanismo, 23, 36
Alô, alô Brasil! (Downey), 168–69, 173
Alô, alô carnival (Macedo), 153, 161–63, 196, 173
Altman, Rick, 90, 126, 154, 184, 188
Amadori, Luis César, 77–78, 80
analytic editing, 122, 187
Appadurai, Arjun, 198–200
Argentina, 19, 137, 160, 165, 247n33;
centennial of, 215;
early sound film production in, 71, 121, 123, 131, 207;
film market in, 74;
film practices in, 76;
film stardom in, 73, 81;
foreign narratives in, 240n43;
industrial filmmaking in, 72, 82;
infrastructure of, 17;
popularity of Cantinflas in, 37;
postage stamps in, 219–20;
radio personality in, 82;
reception of Mexican cinema in, 40;
standardized time in, 113, 245n4;
transition cinema in, 83. See also Argentine cinema
Argentina Sono Film, 69, 75, 77, 80–82, 85, 87, 94, 99, 108, 124–25, 131, 206–208, 210–12, 222, 259n74, 261n112
Argentine cinema, 19, 70, 83–84, 117, 240n44;
in Brazil, 209–11;
circulation of, 206;
golden age of, 68–69, 73, 120;
wartime decline of, 165, 202. See also Estudios Filmadores Argentinos (EFA)
Arias, Pepe, 18, 206, 222, 245n8
Around the World in 80 Days (Anderson), 36, 192–96, 213
atelicity, 199, 219–21, 227, 229
Atlântida studios, 20, 154, 160, 163, 167, 169–72, 174–76, 178, 212, 254n71. See also carnavalescos; chanchadas
audition, 88, 92, 104, 110, 127–29. See also sound; vision
Ávila Camacho, Manuel, 23, 35–36
baiao, 172, 175
Banana da terra (Costa), 158, 169
Barnabé tu és meu (Burle), 154
Bartolo tenía una flauta (Botta), 111–14, 116, 149–50
Bayón Herrera, Luis, 75–76
Bennington, Geoffrey, 219–20
Bergson, Henri, 15–16, 115–16, 145, 245n12. See also laughter
Bernardet, Jean-Claude, 189, 251n16
Bonequinha de seda (Vianna), 168, 253n57
Bordwell, David, 44–45
brasilidade, 155–56
(p.274) Brazil, 17, 162, 222, 260n78;
Argentine cinema in, 197, 199, 206–11;
early cinema of, 8, 113, 156, 158, 169–70 (see also Brazilian cinema);
film criticism in, 154;
foreign films in, 156, 158–59;
Mexican cinema in, 199, 201–204, 258n32;
modernismo in, 5;
monetary policy in, 20, 159–61, 163–67, 177–80, 190 (see also monetary sign)
Caffin, Caroline, 140, 144
Cándida (Bayón Herrera), 69, 75, 208
Cantinflas (Mario Moreno), 1–2, 18–19, 22–38, 40–43, 46–52, 53f, 55–57, 60–67, 96, 118, 139–40, 159, 192–93, 195–96;
circulation of, 37–38, 41, 203–204;
as lumpen figure, 23, 36;
Mexicanness of, 38;
Los tres mosqueteroscantinfleo, 34, 43
cantinflismo, 19, 25–26, 32, 34, 43, 51, 54, 56–57, 59, 65–66
capitalism, 10–11, 24, 34, 59, 115, 178, 205, 223
Carnaval, 153, 167–69, 171–79, 253n57. See also marchas; samba
Carnaval Atlântida (Burle), 170f, 187
Carnaval no fogo (Macedo), 172, 176
carnavalescos, 20, 153–54, 161, 167, 171–72, 174
carpas, 23, 30, 32
La casa de Quirós (Moglia Barth), 117–19
Casamiento en Buenos Aires (Romero), 69, 76, 216, 260n81
Castro Ricalde, Maricruz, 37–39, 44
Caymmi, Dorval, 169, 253n62
chanchada (Brazilian musical comedy), 20, 153–64, 167, 171–72, 174, 176–78, 184–85, 188–91, 204, 254n71;
as pejorative term, 156, 164. See also Brazil: monetary policy in
Chaplin, Charles, 22–23, 115, 139, 143, 147–48, 204
character comedian, 140–41
Cinédia studios, 153, 158, 161, 163–64, 167–69, 171–74, 181, 253n57
circulation, 5, 7, 13–14, 18, 20–21, 40, 58, 196–201, 205, 221;
of Argentine film in Brazil, 199–200, 206–207, 210–11;
of comedy, 201, 204, 206;
cultural, 257n20;
of currency, 181, 228, 254n79;
film, 202, 220;
of film technology, 147;
forms of, 189, 199;
of labor, 195, 223;
logic of, 228;
of Mexican film in Brazil, 199;
narratives of, 212;
of popular culture, 70, 198
classical Hollywood cinema, 4, 9, 11–12, 52–53, 58, 100, 169, 179–80, 185, 212, 255n89;
critique of, 48;
provincializing of, 6, 8, 19, 58, 205;
space in, 66, 92
classicism, 4, 8, 11–13, 21, 25, 44–46, 54, 84, 131, 169, 177, 180–81, 189, 205–206, 212, 229;
Hollywood, 98, 110, 181, 201;
mocking of, 9, 12, 21, 67, 110, 152, 168, 178, 187f, 198, 217. See also mock classicism
Columbia Pictures, 1, 23, 38, 169, 204, 259n64
comedic practices, 3, 236n12
comedy, 2–3, 8, 11, 14–18, 34, 55, 105, 112, 152, 220;
ability to travel, 7, 58;
Bergsonian, 115;
bodily effects of, 14, 16;
of Cantinflas, 36;
circulation of, 21, 201, 204, 206;
comedian, 143;
ensemble, 209;
of errors, 26, 32, 51, 95, 176, 227, 233;
female voices and, 84;
as film genre, 83;
as limit case of classical Hollywood, 7, 14, 45–46, 159, 221, 241n72;
land speculation, 176;
in Latin America, 115;
marginalization of, 9;
Mexican, 18, 44, 159;
of mistaken identity, 31;
physical, 62;
popular, 187;
silent, 204;
slapstick, 6;
studies of, 14;
untranslatability of, 11, 201. See also chanchada; film comedy; musical comedy
comic spirit, 16, 114–15
commodity form, 43, 83, 139, 200–201
Companhia Brasil Cinematographica (CBC), 209–210
Continental Films, 169, 174, 197, 210–12
contingency, 131, 160, 181, 191, 248–49n72, 255n99;
of exhibition, 83;
modernist aesthetics of, 7;
of reception, 66–67, 108
continuity editing, 5, 8, 31, 45, 53, 58, 67, 83, 96, 98, 103, 122, 130, 132, 188
(p.275) Corporação Cinematographica Sul-Americana (Cinesul), 206–208, 210–11
Corporación Cinematográfica Argentina, 78, 111, 124
cosmopolitanism, 12, 21, 58. See also modernity: cosmopolitan
credit, 180, 190, 227
critical reason, 6, 14, 60
cultural forms, 21, 105, 199, 201
culture industry, 24, 49, 120, 138
currency, 20, 159–67, 177–79, 182, 190, 221, 228, 251n29, 252n41, 253n54;
circulation of, 181. See also money
cutaways, 31, 94, 185, 187
de Barros, Luiz, 159, 161, 167. See also O jovem tataravô
deconstruction, 15, 107
Deleuze, Gilles, 14, 115, 232–33
Delgado, Miguel M., 35–36
dependency, 2, 190, 215
Derrida, Jacques, 179, 219, 227, 251n30
desmedida, 161, 163–64, 177, 190
de-solidarity, 63–64
diegesis, 15, 20, 48, 92, 98, 101–102, 108, 110, 129–30, 134, 182, 188–89, 230, 232–33, 256n113;
classical Hollywood and, 5, 13, 52, 180, 184–85;
closed, 181;
hermetic, 49–50, 105;
masquerade and, 106;
mock classical, 197;
sound and, 84, 90, 136
diegetic boundaries, 92, 99
diegeticization, 91, 98–99, 101–102, 110;
double, 89
discontinuity, 9, 54, 84, 102, 151
Distribuidora de Filmes Brasileiros (DFB), 170, 212
Distribuidora Nacional, 170, 212
Distribuidora Paulista de Filmes (DIPA), 197, 211–12
Divorcio en Montevideo (Romero), 75, 213–17, 260n81
Don Quijote del altillo (Romero), 124, 131–36, 222
Downey, Wallace, 169
ductilidad, 87–88, 91–92
É com êste que eu vou (Burle), 175–76
E o mundo se diverte (Macedo), 172–76, 185–88
economic symbolization, 1720, 178, 190, 225, 227
Elsaesser, Thomas, 4, 17, 228–29
epistemology, 14, 142–43
Este mundo é um pandeiro (Macedo), 170, 175
Estudios Filmadores Argentinos (EFA), 69, 72, 75–78, 80, 85, 208, 210–11, 260n75
farce, 19, 33, 49, 51, 95–97
female body, 83, 92, 100, 106
female voice, 84, 91–92, 100–101, 106. See also male voice; voice
Fenelon, Moacyr, 170, 176, 212
fiction, 178–81, 189–91;
of money, 176, 178, 190, 227
fictionality, 20, 178–81, 190–91, 255n102
film:
as commodity, 4, 20–21, 45, 49, 83, 131, 169, 171–72, 180, 198, 201, 205, 228;
as narrative, 21, 198;
as spatial practice, 11, 21, 25, 66, 198, 212–13
film comedy, 4, 21, 27, 58, 65, 105, 113–14, 139, 143, 207;
Latin American, 7, 11, 54, 66, 98, 127, 177, 229;
sound, 82, 85
film criticism, 39, 53, 175, 243n31;
Argentine, 138
film distribution, 23, 73, 125, 165, 169, 171, 199, 204, 209–12, 258n32, 260n78;
of Argentine cinema, 206, 208;
Hollywood, 17, 197–98;
intercontinental, 21;
Mexican, 37–38;
networks, 20, 41, 199, 202
film history, 9, 18, 21, 150, 193, 199, 220;
Argentine, 105, 120;
Brazilian, 171;
international, 3;
Latin American, 9;
national, 105, 228;
new, 4, 108
film image, 120, 180, 196
film industry, 247n33;
American, 181;
Argentine, 69, 72, 165, 248n50;
Brazilian, 166, 170, 253–54n68;
Mexican, 23, 35–38, 202
film music, 91–92;
early, 84
film studies, 3–4, 39, 59, 71, 115, 199, 205, 220;
classicism in, 12;
comedy and, 14;
diegesis and, 256n113;
empirical turn in, 4–5, 17, 37–39, 220;
Latin American, 10, 13, 16, 21, 54, 72;
posthegemony and, 10;
regional, 9
film theory, 5;
classical, 141;
Deleuze and, 14;
feminist, 106–107, 110
filmes cantantes, 154, 156
formalism, 4, 45, 123, 241n70
(p.276) Frankfurt School, 60, 255n99
Freire, Rafael de Luna, 154–55
Gabara, Esther, 5, 241n70
gendarme desconocido, El (Delgado), 41–43
gender, 7, 83, 88, 100, 106, 185
genre, 3, 17–18, 155–56;
national, 154, 156
Gothic horror, 102–103
Gran Hotel (Delgado), 61–63
Grande Otelo, 170f, 172, 177, 185
Hansen, Miriam, 6–9, 16, 45–46, 48, 50, 54, 58, 60, 98, 147, 179, 185, 205, 255n99
Hay que educar a Niní (Amadori), 82, 85–91, 108
Hennefeld, Maggie, 83, 91
Hollywood cinema, 2, 4, 8–9, 11–12, 44, 48, 52–53, 66–67, 70, 84, 92, 100, 169, 179–80, 185, 205, 212, 255n89;
provincialization of, 6, 8, 19, 58, 205
Hollywood Party, 156, 157f
humor, 4, 7, 68, 121 188–89, 241n72;
of Cantinflas, 19, 30–32, 36, 38, 57;
chanchada and, 191;
of Marshall, 105;
of mock classicism, 190;
proper names and, 118;
slapstick, 146
hybridity, 10, 117, 199
igualado, 30, 57
imitation, 31, 140, 145, 147, 156
irony, 190–91
Irwin, Robert McKee, 37–39, 44
isochrone map, 205–206, 228
jovem tataravô, O (de Barros), 161–63, 181–84, 253n57, 255n104
Karush, Matthew, 9, 73, 120, 144
Kern, Stephen, 113, 171
Kracauer, Siegfried, 6, 147, 150, 219, 260n93
ladrón, El (Bracho), 224–27, 262n114
Laera, Alejandra, 178, 221, 254n79
Lamarque, Libertad, 131, 207, 210
Latin American cinema, 3–5, 9, 13–14, 17, 45–46, 50, 54–55, 73, 172
Latin Americanism, 9, 11, 24, 59–60, 201
laughter, 11. See also Bergson, Henri
Lefebvre, Henri, 113, 189, 206, 214
locational thinking, 10, 201
López, Ana, 8, 17, 34, 73
Luna de miel en Rio (Romero), 212, 216
Majumdar, Neepa, 7, 71
male voice, 100–101
marchas, 155, 167, 172, 175, 184, 250n9. See also Carnaval; samba
Marshall, Niní (Marina Esther Traverso), 19, 67–69, 72–78, 80–110, 127, 206–209, 211–12, 214f, 215, 217–18, 222, 243n26, 243n30, 261n112;
body of, 98;
Brazilian debut of, 207;
Cándida character, 74–76, 78, 80–81, 85, 208, 212, 218;
Catita character, 69, 74–75, 77–78, 80–82, 85, 99, 208, 212–17, 243n40;
circulation of, 217;
as comedic star, 87, 109, 218;
stardom of, 68–69;
mass culture, 6, 9, 19, 24, 54–55, 60, 70–73, 120, 124, 129, 255n99
medium ontology, 120, 155–56, 241n70
medium specificity, 105, 155–56, 158
melodrama, 7, 16–17, 34, 55, 71, 220, 245n8;
urban, 89, 108
Mentasti, Angel Luis, 77–78, 206, 259n52, 259n74
Mentasti, José Atilio, 206, 259n52
mentirosa, La (Amadori), 99–105, 108
metalepsis, 16, 185, 188–89. See also chanchada
Mexican cinema, 25, 40, 44, 160;
in Argentina, 40–41;
in Brazil, 201–202;
golden age of, 18, 23, 35, 44, 50;
success abroad of, 37–38, 202, 204
Mexican Revolution, 18, 241n74, 251n29
Mexico, 17, 23, 36, 241n74;
Argentine cinema in, 206, 221;
early cinema of, 8 (see also Mexican cinema);
Eisenstein in, 37;
illiteracy in, 33–34, 43, 48;
relajo and, 60;
Sandrini in, 222, 223f
mimesis, 147, 256n113
mimicry, 31, 148
Miranda, Carmen, 158, 169
mise-en-bande analysis, 126–27, 131
misrecognition, 26, 30, 51, 89–90, 98, 108, 185
(p.277) mock classicism, 21, 25, 72, 98, 110, 127, 136, 152, 184, 206, 217;
chanchada as, 160, 188–89;
Latin American, 67, 164, 223;
Sandrini and, 134;
spectator of, 233
modernism, 5–6, 13, 54–55, 57, 189, 200;
comedic, 236n12;
cosmopolitan, 8;
European, 5, 21, 189;
political, 9;
slapstick, 6;
vernacular, 6–9, 54, 58–59, 64, 188–89, 199
modernismo, 5, 12
modernity, 4, 6–7, 9–12, 19–20, 113–14, 119, 139, 144, 147, 160, 162–63, 179, 193, 200, 228;
Argentine, 215;
experience of, 6, 9, 12, 54, 58–59, 220;
thesis, 235n24
modernization, 3–6, 9–10, 19, 48, 54, 58, 206, 215
Moglia Barth, Luis, 114, 118. See also La casa de Quirós; Riachuelo; ¡Tango!
monetary sign (Derrida), 161, 179, 227
money, 20, 160–61, 163–65, 171–72, 177, 179, 181, 189–90, 227–28, 256n117;
circulation of, 254n79;
fiat, 226–27;
geography of, 220;
narratives about, 176–77;
Monsiváis, Carlos, 36–37, 39, 48, 50
Moreiras, Alberto, 10–11, 14, 39, 59, 201
Moretti, Franco, 7, 241n72
Mujeres que trabajan (Romero), 75, 209, 213
Murúa, Alfredo and Fernando, 72, 131, 222
musical comedy, 14, 20, 153–54, 168, 170–71, 174, 176;
Mexican, 229. See also chanchada
musical film, 120–21, 126, 153, 161, 172;
integrated, 184, 188;
national, 158. See also chanchada
nación, La (newspaper), 69, 77, 79f, 80, 116
narrative strategies, 25, 54, 158
nation-state, 10–11, 14, 37–39, 59, 105, 190, 201, 219, 223
national film histories, 38, 105, 164, 228
national ontology, 45, 155–56. See also medium ontology
nationalism, 3, 5, 19, 23, 37, 41, 105, 120, 155, 159, 191, 198, 243n31 (see also Estado Novo);
corporative, 70;
critical, 54;
cultural, 6, 9, 11–12, 18, 21, 206, 220;
Indian, 71
nationness, 8, 17, 37, 39–41, 155–56
nativism, 12, 164, 199
New Latin American Cinema,
Ni sangre ni arena (Galindo), 46–50, 52, 64, 66, 203
odographic turn, 199–200, 205, 216, 220–21
odography, 199–200;
fiduciary, 228
officialism, 5, 34, 43
Orquesta de señoritas (Amadori), 94–99
Oscarito, 172–73, 175–77, 185, 187f
parody, 46, 48, 55, 99, 190
peladito, 23–24, 34, 36, 46
pelado, 22–27, 30, 35–36, 41, 44, 46–47, 49–52, 55, 61, 66, 204. See also Moreno, Mario “Cantinflas”
Pelmex, 202, 204
Pepe (Sidney), 1, 36
Perón, Juan, 19, 70, 165
Peronism, 19, 70–71, 243n31, 261n106
photography, 140, 150, 153;
arrival in Mexico of, 241n74;
deep-focus, 129,
modernist, 241n70
Podalsky, Laura, 13–14
popular culture, 6, 8, 23, 43, 54, 70, 120, 150, 187, 217
Portilla, Jorge, 60, 63
posthegemony, 9–11
proper name, 25, 32–34, 51, 61–63, 99, 115, 117–18
protectionism, 164–66, 169, 171, 253n68
psychoanalysis, 100, 104–105
Radio Belgrano, 72, 261n106
Radio El Mundo, 72, 74, 222
radionovelas, 72–73, 216
Ramírez Berg, Charles, 9, 44
RCA Victor, 126, 168–69
realism, 9, 12, 24, 31, 139, 141–44, 148, 178–79;
anti-, 190;
Lukacsean, 247n72;
progressive, 71;
reception studies, 11, 37–38, 123
referentiality, 25, 30, 32–33, 52, 56–57, 178, 180
reflexivity, 241n70;
immersive, 53–54;
modernist, 6, 55, 134;
self-, 55, 57–58, 60–61, 64, 85, 109
relajo, 19, 34–35, 60–61, 63–64, 67, 143. See also de-solidarity
(p.278) Riachuelo (Moglia Barth), 143–46, 151, 221, 261n101
Ripstein Jr., Alfredo, 229, 262n114, 262n128
Rosen, Philip, 179–80
samba, 155, 167, 172, 175, 184, 186, 250n9
Sandrini, Luis, 19–20, 111–25, 127–48, 150–52, 206, 210–11, 218, 221–33, 245n8, 247n30, 259n74, 261nn110–11;
circulation of, 221;
clock time and, 160;
death of, 138;
performance style of, 140, 144;
stutter step of, 118, 147;
Serrador, Francisco, 199, 204. See also Companhia Brasil Cinematographica (CBC)
sertanejo, 172, 175
Severiano Ribeiro, Luis, 169–72, 199, 210, 212
shot transitions, 122, 128, 130
Silverman, Kaja, 88, 98, 100
Siskind, Mariano, 12–13, 192, 197
slapstick comedy, 6, 14, 20, 41–42, 83, 146, 236n12
Slowik, Michael, 84, 91
Sociedad Impresora de Discos Argentinos (SIDE), 72, 124, 131, 222
Soifer, Alberto, 132, 248n50
sound:
design, 100, 126, 129, 132, 136, 232;
direct, 122, 128–31;
discursive manipulation of, 127, 135;
realism, 126–27, 131, 133–34, 136;
transition to, 7, 20–21, 58, 70–72, 83–85, 93, 112, 123, 125, 159 (see also sound cinema)
sound aesthetics, 73;
radio, 19, 89
sound cinema, 59, 83, 88, 90, 93, 112, 136, 188;
Argentine, 82, 121, 151;
Brazilian, 153, 161;
early, 69, 73, 85, 94, 121–23, 133
sound engineers, 123, 247n30
sound hermeneutic, 88, 90, 98, 102, 125, 134
sound practices, 123–24, 126–27, 133, 147, 181
sound space, 94, 98, 108, 122, 126–31, 134, 162, 232
sound studies, 83, 92–93, 126
sound technologies, 19, 50, 58, 72–73, 83, 88, 95, 101, 120, 123, 128, 131, 148, 166, 182
soundtrack, 94, 98, 126–27, 131, 133, 247n47
spectatorship, 5, 9, 25, 27, 46–48, 50, 52–53, 88, 106, 108, 130, 145, 185, 229;
errant, 46, 185;
female, 16, 48;
film comedy, 11, 21, 65;
modes of, 21, 44, 48, 190, 205
standardized time, 20, 113, 147, 228
star:
as commodity, 24, 81, 139;
as symptom, 71, 137;
as visible social icon, 70, 136, 218
star contract, 78, 81
star studies, 19, 41, 69–71, 136, 204
star system, 7, 19, 48–49, 69, 73–74, 197–98
stardom, 11, 19, 70–71, 73–75, 81–82;
aural, 19, 69;
Indian, 7;
Niní Marshall’s, 68–69, 93
Superintendência da Moeda e do Crédito (SUMOC), 166–67
Susini, Enrique, 72, 124–25, 247n33. See also Los tres berretines
Süssekind, Flora, 161, 177
¡Tango! (Moglia Barth), 111–16, 120–22, 124–25
Thompson, Kristen, 44–45
Thorry, Juan Carlos, 74, 222
Todd, Michael, 195–96
Todd-AO process, 193, 196
transculturation, 9–10, 201
tres berretines, Los (Susini), 124–29, 127–31, 221
tres mosqueteros, Los (Delgado), 38, 55–57, 203
Tsing, Anna, 199, 205
Tudo azul (Fenelon), 153–54
typage, 141–43, 147, 248n72
type, the, 140–43, 148–51
typicality, 141, 143–45;
Sandrini’s, 148
União Cinematográfica Brasileira (UCB), 170, 200, 212
(p.279) uniform public time, 112–13, 116. See also standardized time
valuation, 160, 163;
crisis of, 20, 159, 162. See also Brazil: monetary policy in; money
Vargas, Getúlio, 175, 251n29;
regimes of, 159, 166–67. See also Estado Novo
ventriloquism, 19, 69, 85, 87–88, 92–93, 96, 99, 102, 105–108, 110, 188, 244n63
verisimilitude, 178–80, 190–91
vernacular, 6–8, 43, 55, 58, 144, 200, 212. See also modernism: vernacular
vida íntima de Marco Antonio y Cleopatra, La (Gavaldón), 229–33
vision, 54, 76, 92, 104, 106–107, 110;
central, 63;
peripheral, 19, 53, 63–64, 233. See also audition
Williams, Gareth, 24, 34, 230
Williams, Linda, 16–17
Zabludovsky, Jacobo, 22, 64