This chapter explores differences in the qiaopi trade from place to place, as well as their causes and consequences. The qiaopi trade was shaped by local circumstances and experiences, but even though its broad contours did not alter, it was more likely to assume special forms in the furthest-flung qiaoxiang than in other migrant-sending areas, which diverged less from the economic and cultural mainstream. Geography affected it at both ends of the migration chain, in China and abroad. This chapter examines the structures and characteristics of the qiaopi trade in the Hakka counties and in Hainan, Wuyi, and Guanfu, together with its connections in Southeast Asia, North America, and Australia. Differences of geography, politics, economy, and society were reflected not just in the form that the qiaopi system took in different places but also, to some extent, in the contents of migrant correspondence.
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