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Dear ChinaEmigrant Letters and Remittances, 1820-1980$
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Gregor Benton and Hong Liu

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780520298415

Published to California Scholarship Online: January 2019

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520298415.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 03 July 2022

Qiaopi Geography

Qiaopi Geography

(p.82) 4 Qiaopi Geography
Dear China

Gregor Benton

Hong Liu

University of California Press

This chapter explores differences in the qiaopi trade from place to place, as well as their causes and consequences. The qiaopi trade was shaped by local circumstances and experiences, but even though its broad contours did not alter, it was more likely to assume special forms in the furthest-flung qiaoxiang than in other migrant-sending areas, which diverged less from the economic and cultural mainstream. Geography affected it at both ends of the migration chain, in China and abroad. This chapter examines the structures and characteristics of the qiaopi trade in the Hakka counties and in Hainan, Wuyi, and Guanfu, together with its connections in Southeast Asia, North America, and Australia. Differences of geography, politics, economy, and society were reflected not just in the form that the qiaopi system took in different places but also, to some extent, in the contents of migrant correspondence.

Keywords:   South China, North America, Southeast Asia, Australia, Hakka, qiaoxiang

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